Kurnool District is a district in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India, located in the west-central part of the state on the southern banks of the Tungabhadra and Handri rivers. The town of Kurnool is currently the headquarters of the district. It had a population of 3,529,494 of which 23.16% were urban as of 2001.
Telugu, Urdu and Kannada are the most widely spoken languages.
In 12th century AD, the Odders, who carted stones for the construction of the temple at Alampur, Mahaboobnagar District, on the left bank of the River Thungabhadra, used the site where the town now stands as a stopping place before crossing the Tungabhadra. They greased their cart wheels with oil supplied by local oil merchants and called the place 'Kandanavolu' which in course of time came to be known as Kurnool.
Of historical interest are the ruins of a royal fort dating back to the medieval kingdom of Vijayanagar, which flourished from the 14th to the 16th century. Several Persian and Arabic inscriptions which throw light on various aspects of historical interests are found here.
In Kurnool there are 52 dargahs (shrines) located around the Thungabhadra and Hundari rivers. A very famous and lengthy K.C. Canal starts in Kurnool and ends in Cuddapah. It is around 300 kilometers long. In Kurnool city there are a number of ancient temples, churches and mosques. Kurnool city, known as the gateway to the Rayalaseema, on N.H.7 (Kanyakumari to Varanasi) on the banks of the Rivers Thungabhadra and the Hundri was the capital of the first linguistic state in free India, Andhra State from 1 Oct. 1953 to 31 Oct. 1956. As such it has some historical buildings.
Kurnool has freedom fighters like Vuyyalawada Narsimha Reddy, Gadicharla Harisarvothama Rao. Zilla Grandhalaya Samstha (ZGS ) and the District Central Libray (DCL), Kurnool, building near the old Bus stand is named 'GADICHARLA HARISARVOTHAMA RAO SMARAKA BHAVANAMU". It is the second district, apart from Nellore (Bejawada Gopal Reddy 'Andhra state' & Nedurumalli Janardhan Reddy), which has contributed two Chief Ministers to Andhra Pradesh:
1. Damodaram Sanjeevaiah (1st dalit Chief Minister of India and A.P),
2. Kotla Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy
3. 10th Indian Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha rao was elected as member of parliament from Nandyal constituency with over 6 lakh (600,000) majority, a world record.
Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy (Ananthapur District) was elected from the Dhone assembly constituency in 1962 general elections and became the Chief Minister of AP. Again in 1977 general elections to the Lok Sabha, he won from the Nandyal Parliamentary constituency and became the speaker of the Lok Sabha. However he resigned and became the 6th President of the Republic of India. In 1970, part of Kurnool district was split off to become part of Prakasam district.
Kurnool District is currently a part of the Red Corridor.
Kurnool district occupies an area of approximately 17,700 square kilometres (6,800 sq mi), comparatively equivalent to New Caledonia.
Kurnool is surrounded by Districts of both Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka,
North- Mahabub Nagar
South- Anantapur, KADAPA (Cuddapah)
East- Praksam (Ongole)
West- Bellary (A district in Karnataka State, predominantly telugu speaking though)
The Nallamalas and Erramalas mountain ranges in the district run parallel from the North to South. The ranges divide the district into two tracts crossed by the Krishna and Pennar rivers. The North Pagidyala mandal is about 1000 above sea level. From this height the ground slopes to the South along the river Kundu until it traverses into the Pennar valley. Major part of its tract is black soil. Between the Erramalas and Nallamalas lies the Eastern part of the district comprising
8. Jupadu Bungalow
10. Bandi Atmakur
28. Srisailam Project (RFC) Township
In 2007–2008 the International Institute for Population Sciences interviewed 1247 households in 38 villages across the district. They found that 94% had access to electricity, 89.7% had drinking water, 34.6% toilet facilities, and 51.6% lived in a pucca (permanent) home. 30.6% of girls wed before the legal age of 18 and 85.1% of interviewees carried a BPL card.
Kurnool District comprises 3 Revenue Divisions, 54 Revenue Mandals, 53 Mandal Parishads, One Municipal Corporation, 3 Municipalities, 899 Gram Panchayats (Notified – 7, Non notified – 862 ), 920 Revenue Villages and 615 Hamlet Villages.
There are 3 revenue divisions and 54 mandals in Kurnool District. The revenue divisions are Adoni, Nandyal and Kurnool.
7. Bandi Atmakur
13. Dhone alias Dronachalam
15. Gadi Vemula
21. Jupadu Bungalow
31. Maddikera (East)
45. Pedda Kadubur
The district is connected by highways and railways.
But people most often use the highways than the railways due to the less frequency of trains .
According to the 2011 census Kurnool district has a population of 4,046,601 , roughly equal to the nation of Liberia or the US state of Oregon. This gives it a ranking of 54th in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 229 inhabitants per square kilometre (590 /sq mi) . Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 14.65 %.Kurnool has a sex ratio of 984 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 61.13 %.
From the years the people can be divided broadly divided into landlords and agricultural labors. The communities are affectionate to one another and loyal to their land lord. Even today the rural population are agricultural labors without any sizeable land holdings. Thats why Kurnool District is known for the effective implementation of The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGS) among all districts of Andhra Pradesh and even India. In recent times there has been massive migration of rural population to cities like Guntur, Bellary and Bangalore.
Today one can find hundreds of villages in the western part of the district going empty. Longterm steps need to be implemented to provide rural employment by setting up rural industries. What is needed is good and sustained school education for the children.
Places of tourist interest
5. Belum Caves